Why you should care about glucose – even if you’re not diabetic

 

80% of non-diabetics are likely to experience glucose spikes, with everyday foods such as breakfast cereal.

Flattening our glucose curves is the most powerful place to start for better health. With flatter glucose curves, we enjoy fewer cravings, better energy, more restful sleep, slower aging, improved fertility and sex hormones, better skin, fewer wrinkles, healthier heart, less cognitive decline, fewer menopause symptoms, easier management of gestational diabetes and type 1 diabetes, and less risk of type 2 diabetes.

  • Joana Araújo et al., "Prevalence of optimal metabolic health in American adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2016," Metabolic syndrome and related disorders 17, no. 1 (2019): 46-52, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30484738/.

  • Benjamin Bikman, Why We Get Sick: The Hidden Epidemic at the Root of Most Chronic Disease and How to Fight It (New York: BenBella, 2020).

  • Robert Lustig, Metabolical: The Lure and the Lies of Processed Food, Nutrition, and Modern Medicine (New York: Harper Wave, 2021).

 

Why spikes are more harmful than a higher but steady glucose level

 

It’s the variability caused by glucose spikes that is problematic.

 

What should my glucose range be?

Per the American Diabetes Association, a fasting glucose level of < 100 mg/dL is considered normal. But normal may not be optimal. Studies show that <85 mg/dL may be optimal, and that avoiding spikes is important.

 

What happens during a glucose spike?

 

1. When we spike, our mitochondria become overwhelmed and start producing chemicals called free radicals. Free radicals harm our cells, mutate our DNA, lead to oxidative stress and inflammation. Sweet spikes do this even more than starchy spikes. Inflammation is the root cause of most diseases. Three out of five people will die of an inflammation-based disease

 

2. When we spike, our body ages. Each glucose spike leads to glycation, which is the process of aging of our body. Glycation leads to many age-related issues, from cataracts to Alzheimer’s. When we slow down glycation, we live a longer, healthier life.

 

3. When we spike, insulin gets released, and excess glucose gets stored as fat. Fructose gets stored only as fat.

 

 

Weight loss is always preceded by insulin levels lowering. Lowering insulin is key to weight loss.

 

The benefits of flattening your glucose curves

 

Less hunger 

·      Paula Chandler-Laney et al., "Return of hunger following a relatively high carbohydrate breakfast is associated with earlier recorded glucose peak and nadir," Appetite 80 (2014): 236-241, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0195666314002049.

·      "Return of hunger following a relatively high carbohydrate breakfast is associated with earlier recorded glucose peak and nadir," Appetite 80 (2014): 236-241, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0195666314002049.

·      Patrick Wyatt et al., "Postprandial glycaemic dips predict appetite and energy intake in healthy individuals," Nature metabolism 3, no. 4 (2021): 523-529, https://www.nature.com/articles/s42255-021-00383-x.

 

Fewer cravings

·      Kathleen Page et al., "Circulating glucose levels modulate neural control of desire for high-calorie foods in humans," The Journal of clinical investigation 121, no. 10 (2011): 4161-4169, https://www.jci.org/articles/view/57873.

·      Patrick Wyatt et al., "Postprandial glycaemic dips predict appetite and energy intake in healthy individuals," Nature metabolism 3, no. 4 (2021): 523-529, https://www.nature.com/articles/s42255-021-00383-x.

  

Better energy and sleep

·      Tanja Taivassalo et al., "The spectrum of exercise tolerance in mitochondrial myopathies: a study of 40 patients," Brain 126, no. 2 (2003): 413-423, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12538407/.

·      Martin Picard et al., "Mitochondrial allostatic load puts the 'gluc' back in glucocorticoids," Nature Reviews Endocrinology, no. 10.5 (2014): 303-310, https://www.uclahealth.org/reversibility-network/workfiles/resources/publications/picard-endocrinol.pdf.

·      Kara L Breymeyer et al., "Subjective mood and energy levels of healthy weight and overweight/obese healthy adults on high-and low-glycemic load experimental diets," Appetite 107 (2016): 253-259, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27507131/.

·      James Gangwisch et al., "High glycemic index and glycemic load diets as risk factors for insomnia: analyses from the Women's Health Initiative," The American journal of clinical nutrition 111, no. 2 (2020): 429-439, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31828298/.

·      R N Aurora et al., "Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Postprandial Glucose Differences in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus," In A97. SRN: NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE CARDIOMETABOLIC CONSEQUENCES OF INSUFFICIENT SLEEP, pp. A2525-A2525. American Thoracic Society, 2020, https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1164/ajrccm-conference.2020.201.1_MeetingAbstracts.A2525.

 

Better immune system & defense against Covid 

·      Nagham Jafar et al., "The effect of short-term hyperglycemia on the innate immune system," The American journal of the medical sciences 351, no. 2 (2016): 201-211, https://www.amjmedsci.org/article/S0002-9629(15)00027-0/fulltext.

·      Janan Kiselar et al., "Modification of β-Defensin-2 by dicarbonyls methylglyoxal and glyoxal inhibits antibacterial and chemotactic function in vitro," PLoS One 10, no. 8 (2015): e0130533, https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0130533.

·      Jiaoyue Zhang et al., "Impaired fasting glucose and diabetes are related to higher risks of complications and mortality among patients with coronavirus disease 2019," Frontiers in endocrinology 11 (2020): 525,

·      https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2020.00525/full?report=reader.

·      Emmanuelle Logette et al., "A Machine-Generated View of the Role of Blood Glucose Levels in the Severity of COVID-19," Frontiers in public health (2021): 1068, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2021.695139/full?fbclid=IwAR0RS9OVCuL9q-fbW4gF7McCYfgRgNDQIVI4JjZE-59Sm1E7l1MFZ0ZGyoI.

·      Francisco Carrasco-Sánchez et al., "Admission hyperglycaemia as a predictor of mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 regardless of diabetes status: data from the Spanish SEMI-COVID-19 Registry," Annals of medicine 53, no. 1 (2021): 103-116, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07853890.2020.1836566.

 

Fewer gestational diabetes complications 

·      Carol Major et al., "The effects of carbohydrate restriction in patients with diet-controlled gestational diabetes," Obstetrics & Gynecology 91, no. 4 (1998): 600-604, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0029784498000039.

·      Robert Moses et al., "Effect of a low-glycemic-index diet during pregnancy on obstetric outcomes," The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84, no. 4 (2006): 807-812, https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/84/4/807/4633214.

·      James F Clapp III et al., "Maternal carbohydrate intake and pregnancy outcome," Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 61, no. 1 (2002): 45-50, https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society/article/maternal-carbohydrate-intake-and-pregnancy-outcome/28F8E1C5E1460E67F2F1CE0C1D06EE81

 

Fewer menopause symptoms

·      Rebecca Thurston et al., "Vasomotor symptoms and insulin resistance in the study of women's health across the nation," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 97, no. 10 (2012): 3487-3494, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22851488/.

·      James E Gangwisch et al., "High glycemic index and glycemic load diets as risk factors for insomnia: analyses from the Women's Health Initiative," The American journal of clinical nutrition 111, no. 2 (2020): 429-439, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31828298/.

 

 Reduced migraine frequency

·      A Fava et al., "Chronic migraine in women is associated with insulin resistance: a cross‐sectional study," European journal of neurology 21, no. 2 (2014): 267-272, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ene.12289.

·      Cinzia Cavestro et al., "Alpha-lipoic acid shows promise to improve migraine in patients with insulin resistance: a 6-month exploratory study," Journal of medicinal food 21, no. 3 (2018): 269-273, https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/jmf.2017.0068.

 

Better brain function

·      Rachel Ginieis et al., "The “sweet” effect: comparative assessments of dietary sugars on cognitive performance," Physiology & behavior 184 (2018): 242-247, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29225094/.

·      Rachel Ginieis et al., "The “sweet” effect: comparative assessments of dietary sugars on cognitive performance," Physiology & behavior 184 (2018): 242-247, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29225094/.

 

Clearer skin

·      Hyuck Hoon Kwon et al., "Clinical and histological effect of a low glycaemic load diet in treatment of acne vulgaris in Korean patients: a randomized, controlled trial," Acta dermato-venereologica 92, no. 3 (2012): 241-246, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22678562/.

 ·      Robyn N Smith et al., "A low-glycemic-load diet improves symptoms in acne vulgaris patients: a randomized controlled trial," The American journal of clinical nutrition 86, no. 1 (2007): 107-115, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17616769/.

 

Slower aging & fewer wrinkles

·      George Suji et al., "Glucose, glycation and aging," Biogerontology 5, no. 6 (2004): 365-373, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10522-004-3189-0.

·      Roma Pahwa et al., "Chronic inflammation," (2018), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493173/.

·      Robert A Greenwald et al., "Inhibition of collagen gelation by action of the superoxide radical," Arthritis & Rheumatism: Official Journal of the American College of Rheumatology 22, no. 3 (1979): 251-259, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/217393/.

·      Biplab Giri et al., "Chronic hyperglycemia mediated physiological alteration and metabolic distortion leads to organ dysfunction, infection, cancer progression and other pathophysiological consequences: an update on glucose toxicity,” Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy, no. 107 (2018): 306-328, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0753332218322406.

·      John Tower, "Programmed cell death in aging," Ageing research reviews 23 (2015): 90-100, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4480161/ 

·      Charles Watt et al., "Glycemic variability and CNS inflammation: Reviewing the connection," Nutrients 12, no. 12 (2020): 3906, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33371247/.

·      "Nutrition and aging skin: sugar and glycation," Clinics in dermatology 28, no. 4 (2010): 409-411, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0738081X10000428.

·      Paraskevi Gkogkolou et al., "Advanced glycation end products: key players in skin aging?," Dermato-endocrinology 4, no. 3 (2012): 259-270, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3583887/.

·      "Glycation of lens crystalline protein in the pathogenesis of various forms of cataract," Biomedical Research 20, no. 2 (2009): 119-21, https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ashok-Katta-3/publication/233419577_Glycation_of_lens_crystalline_protein_in_the_pathogenesis_of_various_forms_of_cataract/links/02e7e531342066c955000000/Glycation-of-lens-crystalline-protein-in-the-pathogenesis-of-various-forms-of-cataract.pdf

 

Less risk of Alzheimer’s & potential reversal of cognitive decline

·      Suzanne M De la Monte et al., "Alzheimer's disease is type 3 diabetes—evidence reviewed," Journal of diabetes science and technology 2, no. 6 (2008): 1101-1113, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/193229680800200619.

·      Robert H, Lustig, Metabolical: The Lure and the Lies of Processed Food, Nutrition, and Modern Medicine (New York: Harper Wave, 2021).

·      Jiyin Zhou et al., "Diabetic cognitive dysfunction: from bench to clinic," Current medicinal chemistry 27, no. 19 (2020): 3151-3167, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30727866/.

·      Auriel A Willette et al., "Association of insulin resistance with cerebral glucose uptake in late middle–aged adults at risk for Alzheimer disease," JAMA neurology 72, no. 9 (2015): 1013-1020, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26214150/.

·      Christine M Burns et al., "Higher serum glucose levels are associated with cerebral hypometabolism in Alzheimer regions," Neurology 80, no. 17 (2013): 1557-1564, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3662330/.

·      Mark A Reger et al., "Effects of β-hydroxybutyrate on cognition in memory-impaired adults," Neurobiology of aging 25, no. 3 (2004): 311-314, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0197458003000873.

·      Dale E Bredesen, et al., "Reversal of cognitive decline: a novel therapeutic program," Aging (Albany NY) 6, no. 9 (2014): 707, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4221920/

 

Less cancer risk

·      Amar S Ahmad et al., "Trends in the lifetime risk of developing cancer in Great Britain: comparison of risk for those born from 1930 to 1960." British journal of cancer 112, no. 5 (2015): 943-947, https://www.nature.com/articles/bjc2014606.

·      Robert H, Lustig, Metabolical: The Lure and the Lies of Processed Food, Nutrition, and Modern Medicine (New York: Harper Wave, 2021).

·      Florian R Greten et al., "Inflammation and cancer: triggers, mechanisms, and consequences," Immunity 51, no. 1 (2019): 27-41, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S107476131930295X.

·      Rachel J Perry et al., "Mechanistic links between obesity, insulin, and cancer," Trends in cancer 6, no. 2 (2020): 75-78, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2405803319302614.

·      Tetsuro Tsujimoto et al., "Association between hyperinsulinemia and increased risk of cancer death in nonobese and obese people: A population‐based observational study," International journal of cancer 141, no. 1 (2017): 102-111, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ijc.30729.

 

Better mental health

·      Kara L Breymeyer et al., "Subjective mood and energy levels of healthy weight and overweight/obese healthy adults on high-and low-glycemic load experimental diets," Appetite 107 (2016): 253-259, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27507131/.

·      Rachel A Cheatham et al., "Long-term effects of provided low and high glycemic load low energy diets on mood and cognition," Physiology & behavior 98, no. 3 (2009): 374-379, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19576915/.

·      Sue Penckofer et al., "Does glycemic variability impact mood and quality of life?," Diabetes technology & therapeutics 14, no. 4 (2012): 303-310, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3317401/.

·      James E Gangwisch et al., "High glycemic index diet as a risk factor for depression: analyses from the Women’s Health Initiative," The American journal of clinical nutrition 102, no. 2 (2015): 454-463, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4515860/.

 

Better gut health 

·      Fernando F Anhê et al., "Glucose alters the symbiotic relationships between gut microbiota and host physiology," American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 318, no. 2 (2020): E111-E116, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31794261/.

·      Robert H, Lustig, Metabolical: The Lure and the Lies of Processed Food, Nutrition, and Modern Medicine (New York: Harper Wave, 2021).

·      William S Yancy et al., "Improvements of gastroesophageal reflux disease after initiation of a low-carbohydrate diet: Five brief case reports," Alternative therapies in health and medicine 7, no. 6 (2001): 120, https://search.proquest.com/openview/1c418d7f0548f58a5c647b1204d3f6a7/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=32528.

 

Better heart health

·      Koichi Node et al., "Postprandial hyperglycemia as an etiological factor in vascular failure," Cardiovascular Diabetology 8, no. 1 (2009): 1-10, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19402896/.

·      Antonio Ceriello et al., "Oscillating glucose is more deleterious to endothelial function and oxidative stress than mean glucose in normal and type 2 diabetic patients," Diabetes 57, no. 5 (2008): 1349-1354, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18299315/.

·      Flynn et al., "Transient intermittent hyperglycemia accelerates atherosclerosis by promoting myelopoiesis," Circulation research 127, no. 7 (2020): 877-892, https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.120.316653.

·      "Elevated one-hour post-load plasma glucose levels identifies subjects with normal glucose tolerance but early carotid atherosclerosis," Atherosclerosis 207, no. 1 (2009): 245-249, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0021915009002718.

 

Improved fertility

·      Tetsurou Sakumoto et al., "Insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia and reproductive disorders in infertile women," Reproductive medicine and biology 9, no. 4 (2010): 185-190, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5904600/.

·      LaTasha B Craig et al., "Increased prevalence of insulin resistance in women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss," Fertility and sterility 78, no. 3 (2002): 487-490, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0015028202032478.

·      Nelly Pitteloud et al., "Increasing insulin resistance is associated with a decrease in Leydig cell testosterone secretion in men," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 90, no. 5 (2005): 2636-2641, https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/90/5/2636/2836773.

·      Jorge E Chavarro et al., "A prospective study of dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality in relation to risk of ovulatory infertility," European journal of clinical nutrition 63, no. 1 (2009): 78-86, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3066074/.

·      Zeeeshan Anwar et al., "Erectile dysfunction: An underestimated presentation in patients with diabetes mellitus," Indian journal of psychological medicine 39, no. 5 (2017): 600-604, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5688886/.

·     Fengjuan Yao et al., "Erectile dysfunction may be the first clinical sign of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in young men," Clinical Research in Cardiology 102, no. 9 (2013): 645-651, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00392-013-0577-y.

 

Fewer polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) symptoms

·      John E Nestler et al., "Insulin stimulates testosterone biosynthesis by human thecal cells from women with polycystic ovary syndrome by activating its own receptor and using inositolglycan mediators as the signal transduction system," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 83, no. 6 (1998): 2001-2005, https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/83/6/2001/2865383?login=true.

·      Benjamin Bikman, Why We Get Sick: The Hidden Epidemic at the Root of Most Chronic Disease and How to Fight It (New York: BenBella, 2020).

·      John C Mavropoulos et al., "The effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet on the polycystic ovary syndrome: a pilot study," Nutrition & metabolism 2, no. 1 (2005): 1-5, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1334192/.

 

Type 2 diabetes remission

·      Marc Y Donath et al., "Type 2 diabetes as an inflammatory disease," Nature reviews immunology 11, no. 2 (2011): 98-107, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21233852/.

·      Joshua Z Goldenberg et al., "Efficacy and safety of low and very low carbohydrate diets for type 2 diabetes remission: systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished randomized trial data," bmj 372 (2021), https://www.bmj.com/content/372/bmj.m4743.

·      William S Yancy et al., "A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet to treat type 2 diabetes," Nutrition & metabolism 2, no. 1 (2005): 1-7, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/1743-7075-2-34.

·      Alison B Evert et al., "Nutrition therapy for adults with diabetes or prediabetes: a consensus report," Diabetes care 42, no. 5 (2019): 731-754, https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/diacare/early/2019/04/10/dci19-0014.full.pdf.

 

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD / NASH) remission

·      Zobair M Younossi et al., "Global epidemiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease—meta‐analytic assessment of prevalence, incidence, and outcomes," Hepatology 64, no. 1 (2016): 73-84, https://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/hep.28431.

·      CR Meex et al., "Hepatokines: linking nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance." Nature Reviews Endocrinology 13, no. 9 (2017): 509-520, https://www.nature.com/articles/nrendo.2017.56.

 

 

The hacks

 

Eat foods in the right order 

·      Alpana P Shukla et al., "Food order has a significant impact on postprandial glucose and insulin levels." Diabetes care 38, no. 7 (2015): e98-e99, https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/38/7/e98.

·      Kimiko Nishino et al., "Consuming carbohydrates after meat or vegetables lowers postprandial excursions of glucose and insulin in nondiabetic subjects," Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology 64, no. 5 (2018): 316-320, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328640463_Consuming_Carbohydrates_after_Meat_or_Vegetables_Lowers_Postprandial_Excursions_of_Glucose_and_Insulin_in_Nondiabetic_Subjects.

·      Alpana P Shukla et al., "Food order has a significant impact on postprandial glucose and insulin levels," Diabetes care 38, no. 7 (2015): e98-e99, https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/38/7/e98.

·      Domenico Tricò et al., "Manipulating the sequence of food ingestion improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients under free-living conditions," Nutrition & diabetes 6, no. 8 (2016): e226-e226, https://www.nature.com/articles/nutd201633/.

·      Alpana P Shukla et al., "Effect of food order on ghrelin suppression," Diabetes Care 41, no. 5 (2018): e76-e77, https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/41/5/e76.

  

Add a plate of vegetables to all your meals

·      Martin O Weickert et al., "Metabolic effects of dietary fiber consumption and prevention of diabetes," The Journal of nutrition 138, no. 3 (2008): 439-442, https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/138/3/439/4670214.

·      "The effects of functional fiber on postprandial glycemia, energy intake, satiety, palatability and gastrointestinal wellbeing: a randomized crossover trial," Nutrition journal 13, no. 1 (2014): 1-9, https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2891-13-76.

·      "Impact of nutrient type and sequence on glucose tolerance: Physiological insights and therapeutic implications," Frontiers in endocrinology 10 (2019): 144, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2019.00144/full#B58.

 

Have a savoury breakfast  

·      Courtney R Chang et al., "Restricting carbohydrates at breakfast is sufficient to reduce 24-hour exposure to postprandial hyperglycemia and improve glycemic variability,” The American journal of clinical nutrition 109, no. 5 (2019): 1302-1309, https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/109/5/1302/5435774?login=true.

·      Kim J Shimy et al., "Effects of dietary carbohydrate content on circulating metabolic fuel availability in the postprandial state," Journal of the Endocrine Society 4, no. 7 (2020): bvaa062, https://academic.oup.com/jes/article/4/7/bvaa062/5846215.

·      Chandler-Laney et al., "Return of hunger following a relatively high carbohydrate breakfast is associated with earlier recorded glucose peak and nadir," Appetite 80 (2014): 236-241, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0195666314002049.

·      Rachel Galioto et al., "The effects of breakfast and breakfast composition on cognition in adults," Advances in nutrition 7, no. 3 (2016): 576S-589S, https://academic.oup.com/advances/article/7/3/576S/4558060.

·      Martha Nydia Ballesteros et al., "One egg per day improves inflammation when compared to an oatmeal-based breakfast without increasing other cardiometabolic risk factors in diabetic patients," Nutrients 7, no. 5 (2015): 3449-3463, https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/7/5/3449.

 

Only eat fruit whole 

·      KeXue Zhu et al., "Effect of ultrafine grinding on hydration and antioxidant properties of wheat bran dietary fiber," Food Research International 43, no. 4 (2010): 943-948, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0963996910000232.

 

If you want a snack, have a savoury snack

·      Robert H Lustig, "Fructose: it's “alcohol without the buzz”," Advances in nutrition 4, no. 2 (2013): 226-235, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3649103/.

 

Have dessert over a sweet snack 

·      Hana Kahleova et al., "Eating two larger meals a day (breakfast and lunch) is more effective than six smaller meals in a reduced-energy regimen for patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised crossover study," Diabetologia 57, no. 8 (2014): 1552-1560, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-014-3253-5.

 

Incorporate vinegar into your routine – for example 1 tablespoon of it diluted in water before meals 

·      Tomoo Kondo et al., "Vinegar intake reduces body weight, body fat mass, and serum triglyceride levels in obese Japanese subjects," Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry 73, no. 8 (2009): 1837-1843, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1271/bbb.90231.

·      Heitor O Santos et al., "Vinegar (acetic acid) intake on glucose metabolism: A narrative review," Clinical nutrition ESPEN 32 (2019): 1-7, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333526775_Vinegar_acetic_acid_intake_on_glucose_metabolism_A_narrative_review.

·      Solaleh Sadat Khezri et al., "Beneficial effects of Apple Cider Vinegar on weight management, Visceral Adiposity Index and lipid profile in overweight or obese subjects receiving restricted calorie diet: A randomized clinical trial," Journal of functional foods 43 (2018): 95-102, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1756464618300483.

·      Farideh Shishehbor et al., "Vinegar consumption can attenuate postprandial glucose and insulin responses; a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials," Diabetes research and clinical practice 127 (2017): 1-9, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314200733_Vinegar_consumption_can_attenuate_postprandial_glucose_and_insulin_responses_a_systematic_review_and_meta-analysis_of_clinical_trials

·      Di Wu et al., "Intake of vinegar beverage is associated with restoration of ovulatory function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome," The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine 230, no. 1 (2013): 17-23, https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tjem/230/1/230_17/_article/-char/ja/.

·      Panayota Mitrou et al., "Vinegar consumption increases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by the forearm muscle in humans with type 2 diabetes," Journal of diabetes research 2015 (2015), https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2015/175204/.

·      "Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects," European journal of clinical nutrition 59, no. 9 (2005): 983-988, https://www.nature.com/articles/1602197/

·      F Brighenti et al., "Effect of neutralized and native vinegar on blood glucose and acetate responses to a mixed meal in healthy subjects," European journal of clinical nutrition 49, no. 4 (1995): 242-247, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7796781/.

·      Stavros Liatis et al., "Vinegar reduces postprandial hyperglycaemia in patients with type II diabetes when added to a high, but not to a low, glycaemic index meal," European journal of clinical nutrition 64, no. 7 (2010): 727-732, https://www.nature.com/articles/ejcn201089.

·      Tomoo Kondo et al., "Vinegar intake reduces body weight, body fat mass, and serum triglyceride levels in obese Japanese subjects," Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry 73, no. 8 (2009): 1837-1843, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1271/bbb.90231.

·      Carol S Johnston et al., "Examination of the antiglycemic properties of vinegar in healthy adults," Annals of nutrition and metabolism 56, no. 1 (2010): 74-79, https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/272133.

·      Carol S Johnston et al., "Preliminary evidence that regular vinegar ingestion favorably influences hemoglobin A1c values in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus," Diabetes research and clinical practice 84, no. 2 (2009): e15-e17, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0168822709000813.

 

Use your muscles for 10 minutes after your meals

·      Erik A Richter et al., "Exercise, GLUT4, and skeletal muscle glucose uptake," Physiological reviews (2013), https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/physrev.00038.2012?view=long&pmid=23899560.

·      Andrew Borror et al., "The effects of postprandial exercise on glucose control in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review," Sports Medicine 48, no. 6 (2018): 1479-1491, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40279-018-0864-x.

·      G Messina et al., "Exercise causes muscle GLUT4 translocation in an insulin," Biol Med 1 (2015): 1-4, https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Fiorenzo_Moscatelli/publication/281774994_Exercise_Causes_Muscle_GLUT4_Translocation_in_an_Insulin-Independent_Manner/links/55f7e0ee08aec948c474b805/Exercise-Causes-Muscle-GLUT4-Translocation-in-an-Insulin-Independent-Manner.pdf.

·      Stephney Whillier, "Exercise and insulin resistance," Advances in Experimental Medicine & Biology 1228 (2020): 137-150, https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-15-1792-1_9.

·      Jason MR Gill., "Moderate exercise and post-prandial metabolism: issues of dose-response," Journal of sports sciences 20, no. 12 (2002): 961-967, https://shapeamerica.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/026404102321011715.

·      Sheri R Colberg et al., "Postprandial walking is better for lowering the glycemic effect of dinner than pre-dinner exercise in type 2 diabetic individuals," Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 10, no. 6 (2009): 394-397, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S152586100900111X.

·      Timothy D Heden, "Postdinner resistance exercise improves postprandial risk factors more effectively than predinner resistance exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes," Journal of Applied Physiology 118, no. 5 (2015): 624-634, https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.00917.2014.

·      Sechang Oh et al., "Exercise reduces inflammation and oxidative stress in obesity-related liver diseases," Medicine and science in sports and exercise 45, no. 12 (2013): 2214-2222, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23698242/.

·      Andrew N Reynolds et al., "Advice to walk after meals is more effective for lowering postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus than advice that does not specify timing: a randomised crossover study," Diabetologia 59, no. 12 (2016): 2572-2578, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-016-4085-2.

·      Goto, Sataro, Hisashi Naito, Takao Kaneko, Hae Young Chung, and Zsolt Radak. "Hormetic effects of regular exercise in aging: correlation with oxidative stress." Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 32, no. 5 (2007): 948-953, https://cdnsciencepub.com/doi/abs/10.1139/H07-092.

 

Avoid naked carbs

·      Lesley N Lilly et al., "The effect of added peanut butter on the glycemic response to a high–Glycemic index meal: A pilot study," Journal of the American College of Nutrition 38, no. 4 (2019): 351-357, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30395790/.

·      David JA Jenkins et al., "Almonds decrease postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative damage in healthy individuals," The Journal of nutrition 136, no. 12 (2006): 2987-2992, https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/136/12/2987/4663963

·      Lorenzo Nesti et al., "Impact of nutrient type and sequence on glucose tolerance: Physiological insights and therapeutic implications," Frontiers in endocrinology 10 (2019): 144, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2019.00144/full#B58.

·      Diana Gentilcore et al., "Effects of fat on gastric emptying of and the glycemic, insulin, and incretin responses to a carbohydrate meal in type 2 diabetes," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 91, no. 6 (2006): 2062-2067, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16537685/.

·      Karen E Foster-Schubert et al., "Acyl and total ghrelin are suppressed strongly by ingested proteins, weakly by lipids, and biphasically by carbohydrates," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 93, no. 5 (2008): 1971-1979, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2386677/.